CAT5 Wiring Technique for Ethernet Cable

26 08 2012

Tech Superforce

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Connectors and Information

The cable exists in both stranded and solid conductor forms. The stranded form is more flexible and withstands more bending without breaking and is suited for reliable connections with insulation piercing connectors, but makes unreliable connections in insulation-displacement connectors. The solid form is less expensive and makes reliable connections into insulation displacement connectors, but makes unreliable connections in insulation piercing connectors. Taking these things into account, building wiring (for example, the wiring inside the wall that connects a wall socket to a central patch panel) is solid core, while patch cables (for example, the movable cable that plugs into the wall socket on one end and a computer on the other) are stranded. Outer insulation is typically PVC or LSOH.

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STANDARD SEQUENCE

White Orange, Orange, White Green, Blue, White Blue, Green, White Brown, Brown.  This is Standard 568B Cat5 wiring.

CHARACTERISTICS of Category 5 Wire
Bending radius
Most Cat 5 cables can be bent at a radius approximately 4 times the diameter of the cable.

Maximum Cable Segment Length
According to the ANSI/TIA/EIA standard for category 5e cable, (TIA/EIA 568-5-A[5]) the maximum length for a cable segment is 100 meters (328 feet). If longer runs are required, the use of active hardware such as a repeater, or a switch, is necessary.[6] [7] The specifications for 10baseT networking specify a 100 metre length between active devices. This allows for 90 metres of fixed cabling, two connectors and two patch leads of 5 metres, one at each end. In practice longer lengths are possible. (See Ethernet over twisted pair which states that 150 m is often considered to be the maximum working length.) Experiments show that a full 305 metre drum of cable is well above the practical limit, but that reliable transmission with 200 m is often possible.

For information on technical support, if you need specific answer, please feel free to visit our main website at:  www.techsuperforce.com

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Malicious Viruses and What To Do If Your System Becomes Infected

26 08 2012

Malicious code (sometimes called malware) is a type of software designed to take over or  damage a computer, without the user’s knowledge or approval. Malware includes:

  • Viruses that attach to legitimate files and spread when the files are opened.
  • Worms that infect systems and spread automatically through the network.
  • Trojan horse programs that appear to be useful programs but which perform secret or  malicious acts.
  • Spyware that tracks your computer or browser activity.
  • Adware that displays pop-up advertisements based on your browser activity.
  • Spam that is unwanted, unsolicited e-mail, often carrying viruses or advertisements for    questionable or illegal products.

You should protect all systems with malware protection software to help prevent and control   malware on your system.

Here are two of my favorite programs to use, Malwarebytes and Avast.  Malwarebytes is reactive program that you install in a non-infected system and run and update to keep your computer safe.  You can also use it in a ‘cocktail’ of programs to run in Safe Mode if you ever have to clean up your system from infections.

Avast is a free anti-virus that has worked pretty good to keep our systems protected.  It is simple, very stealth, and low resource-consuming on any operatating systems we have tested it on.  It has picked up many viruses and removed them from infected systems.

  • Common symptoms of malware on your system include:

    • The browser home page or default search page has changed.
    • Excessive pop-ups or strange messages being displayed.
    • Firewall alerts about programs trying to access the Internet.
    • System errors about corrupt or missing files.
    • File extension associations have changed to open files with a different program.
    • Files that disappear, are renamed, or are corrupt.
    • New icons appear on the desktop or taskbar, or new toolbars show in the browser.
    • The firewall or antivirus software is turned off, or you can’t run antivirus scans.
    • The system won’t boot.
  • Some malicious software can hide itself such that there might not be any obvious signs of its presence. Other symptoms of an infection include:
    • Slow Internet access.
    • Excessive network traffic, or traffic during times when no activity should be occurring.
    • Excessive CPU or disk activity.
    • Low system memory.
    • An unusually high volume of outgoing e-mail, or e-mail sent during off hours.
  • Conducting regular system scans can detect and fix many problems.
    • Most software lets you schedule complete system scans, such as daily or weekly.
    • If you suspect a problem, initiate a full system scan immediately.
  • Remediation is the process of correcting any problems that are found. Most antivirus software remediates problems automatically or semi-automatically (i.e. you are prompted to identify the action to take). Possible actions in response to problems are:
    • Repair the infection. Repair is possible for true viruses that have attached themselves to valid files. During the repair, the virus is removed and the file is placed back in its original state (if possible).
    • Quarantine the file. Quarantine moves the infected file to a secure folder where it cannot be opened or run normally. You might quarantine an infected file that cannot be repaired to see if another tool or utility might be able to recover the file at another time.
    • Delete the file. You should delete files that are malicious files such as worms, Trojan horse programs, or spyware or adware programs. In addition, you should periodically review the quarantine folder and delete any files you do not want to recover.
  • If a scan reports a serious problem, disconnect your computer from the network. This prevents your computer from infecting other computers until the problem is corrected.
  • Some malicious software warnings, such as those seen in pop-ups or received through e-mail, are hoax viruses. A hoax virus instructs you to take an action to protect your system, when in fact that action will cause harm. Two common hoaxes are:
    • Instructing you to delete a file that is reported as a virus. The file is actually an important system file that will lead to instability or the inability to boot your computer.
    • Instructing you to download and run a program to see if your system is compromised or to add protection to your system. The file you download is the malicious software.

    Before taking any actions based on notices or e-mails, search the Internet for a list of virus hoaxes and compare your notice to know hoaxes.

Recovery from malware could include the following actions:

  • If scans detect malware, then repair, quarantine, or delete the malicious software.
  • Some malware cannot be removed because it is running.
    • If possible, stop the program from running, then try to remove it.
    • If you are unable to stop the malware, try booting into Safe Mode, then run the scanning software to locate and remove the malware.
  • If malware has caused damage to the system, it may be permanent and could require that you reinstall applications, features, restore files from a backup, or even restore the entire operating system from scratch.
  • If malware has damaged or corrupted system files, you might be able to repair the infected files using Sfc.exe.
    • Before running Sfc, be sure to remove the program that caused the damage (or it might re-introduce the problem after the fix).
    • You might need to boot into the Recovery Console to check system file integrity and repair any problems found.
  • Some malware can corrupt the boot block on the hard disk preventing the system from starting. To repair the problem, try using the Recovery Console in Windows XP, or perform an automatic repair in Windows Vista/7. Use fixmbr or fixboot in the Recovery Console to try to repair the damage.
  • If the organization uses imaging solutions, you can quickly reimage a machine if it is infected with malware. Reimaging or installing from scratch is often faster and more effective than malware removal and cleanup.

To conclude, the best thing to do in case the virus is not removed is to boot up in Safe Mode (restart the computer and right when it turns on press F8 until you are prompted to start in Safe Mode).  Then run your virus removal utilities.  If you will need the Internet, boot in Safe Mode with Networking (this mean you can connect online with minimal resources loaded).

Sometimes virus removal can be like peeling an onion- you remove one and it reveals another one that was not detected before.  IF this happens a lot, then as you go removing the viruses, some parts of your operating system can become corrupt, like system files and applications .  In this case, and in the case of rootkits, sometimes it’s just best to salvage whatever information you can and then re-install the operating system.

If you need help with any of the things mentioned above, or guidance, please feel free to contact technical support by visiting www.techsuperforce.com.

We are always available through phone, chat, or email.

We hope you enjoyed this article, and feel free to leave comments or questions here.





WDS Deployment Facts – Windows Server

25 08 2012

Did you know that if you have the resources (which can be anywhere from affordable to bust-the-bank expensive), you can populate a very nice and resourceful network in your small or regular business.

Most office have machines that host the operating system, such as Windows XP Professional, right inside the actual machine.  This is called a local installation because it resides locally in the computer.

With Windows Servers, you can implement a different kind of hosting system.  You can have hard drive-less workstations that boot right off the server operating system image files stored in a file server.  This is called WDS or Windows Deployment Services.

Now although this may not be the right fit for every business, it certainly has its benefits.  One of the benefits is increased security, as the local machine does not have anything stored in it, and another one is data is securely stored in the server and there is more fault tolerance.

WDS Facts

The Windows Deployment Services (WDS) server role enables the deployment of Windows operating systems to client and server computers. Using WDS, computers without an operating system installed boot from the network, contact the WDS server, and download and install the operating system.

WDS uses disk images for the installation. An image is a single file containing the contents of an operating system installation. Image files have the .wim extension. There are four types of WDS images:

An install image is an image of the operating system that will be installed on client computers.

  • A default install image (Install.wim) is included on the operating system DVD in the <DVDroot>\Sourcesfolder.
  • Install.wim includes all editions of Windows Server 2008 or 2008 R2 within the single image file, including the Enterprise and Datacenter editions and the Server Core installations.
  • When you add the install image in WDS, you identify the editions within the install image that are available for clients to install.
  • When a client computer connects to the WDS server, and if there are multiple install images available or multiple editions within a single install image made available, a menu will be shown allowing the user to select the version and edition to install.
  • Each install image is architecture specific. For example, you must have either the 32-bit, 64-bit or 64-bit Itanium version.

boot image is a minimal operating system that is sent to the client when it first connects to the WDS server. Boot images are used as follows:

  1. During the boot process, the client computer locates the WDS server.
  2. The WDS server sends a boot image file to the client. The boot image file contains the Windows PE operating system and the WDS client software.
  3. The client installs the Windows PE operating system in the boot image and starts the WDS client.
  4. The WDS client retrieves a list of available full operating systems to install.
  5. The client computer downloads the appropriate install image and installs the full operating system.

When working with boot image files:

  • A default boot image file (Boot.wim) is included on the operating system DVD in the <DVDroot>\Sourcesfolder.
  • You can use multiple boot image files. If the WDS server has multiple boot image files, the client computer will display a menu of boot images to use.

Note: Client computers must support PXE boot (network boot) to use boot image files. PXE boot allows a computer without an operating system installed to locate and download the operating system through a network connection.

capture boot image is an image that you use to create custom install images. To create a custom install image you do the following:

  1. Create the capture boot image from a regular boot image. The capture image includes Windows PE and the WDS Image Capture Wizard.
  2. Install the operating system on a reference computer. Once the operating system is installed, you can customize the installation as desired.
  3. On the reference computer, run the Sysprep utility. Sysprep prepares the computer so that an image can be created from the installation.
  4. Boot the reference computer from the network. When the computer connects to the WDS server, select the capture boot image you created earlier.
  5. After the computer boots, it runs the WDS Image Capture Wizard. Use the wizard to select the disk partition containing the operating system installation you want to capture, and a location to save the resulting image file.
  6. When the wizard completes, the resulting install image file is uploaded to the WDS server.

discover image is a boot image that is placed on removable media (such as a CD, DVD, or USB drive) that can be used by non-PXE clients to boot and locate a WDS server. To use a discover image:

  1. Create the discover image from an existing boot image.
  2. Use the Microsoft Windows AIK tools to create an ISO image that contains the discover boot image.
  3. Burn the ISO image to disc. You must use a tool capable of creating a disc from an ISO image; simply copying the image to the disc will not work.
  4. Insert the media in the client computer. Boot the computer from the media.
  5. The computer installs the Windows PE operating system and connects to the WDS server. Select a desired install image to install the full operating system and complete the process.

A few more things to keep in mind…

Windows Server 2008 R2 supports IPv6 for deploying images, but does not support IPv6 for network booting.

Windows Server 2008 R2 also adds the ability to deploy virtual hard disk (.VHD) images under the following limited conditions:

  • Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows 7 Enterprise and Ultimate are the only supported operating systems.
  • The WDSUtil command line utility must be used to import and configure .VHD images.
  • Deployment must be automated, which requires creation of two unattend files. It is valid only for a physical computer (not a virtual machine).
  • The .VHD image must contain only one OS and one partition. It may not contain applications or data (only the OS) or a 64-bit Windows edition partitioned with a GUID partition table (GPT).

THAT WRAPS IT UP here at Superforce for WDS Facts.  We hope you enjoyed our article and found it useful, and please feel free to write any comments or if you have any questions.  We will be more than happy to assist you.

If you need further technical support, you may visit our main technical support website at TECHSUPERFORCE!





Realtek Ethernet driver ERROR Microsoft Windows XP and 2000

25 08 2012

If you downloaded a driver for your VGA display adapter on Windows XP and you still cannot get rid of the error after running it, you might be missing one more thing.
Here’s what to do….

Make sure to find out if your display is NVIDIA or INTEL first!  The way to do that is by right clicking in Device Manager the (!) device and going to Properties, and from the drop down menu select HARDWARE IDs.

This will show you something like….

USB\VID_1B96&PID_0001&REV_0000&MI_02

 

If you do some research on these Hardware Ids, you will get a wealth of information back.

NOW-  we have the necessary info to determine what driver manufacturers we need to download from.  Never get third party drivers, NOT RECOMMENDED!  Always go to the Manufacturer’s Website.

(The following is an example of a driver installation for an Ethernet adapter and we will use Windows XP as the environment. We will use a random .exe file as a demonstration, however the concept is the key to apply to your specific driver.)

Now, follow the instructions after you have unsuccessfully fixed the problem if you are sure you have the correct drivers:

Downloading the package
=======================
1. Click the file link to download the file from the Web page.
2. When prompted, select a drive and directory in which to save
   the downloaded file.

Extracting the package
======================
1.  Click Start, click Search, then click All files and folders.
2.  Type q4etn11us13.exe in the search field, then click Search.
    This will locate the file you just downloaded.
3.  Double-click the q4etn11us13.exe icon.
4.  Click Next. Read the license agreement.
5.  Click I accept the terms in the license agreement. 
6.  Click Next.
7.  Ensure that "Save files in folder" is set to
    C:\SWTOOLS\drivers\ethernet\Q4etn11US13.
8.  Click Next.
9.  Click Finish to extract the necessary files to your hard drive.

Installing the package
======================
1.  Click Start, then click Run.
2.  Type C:\SWTOOLS\drivers\ethernet\Q4etn11US13\Setup.exe, then click OK.
3.  Follow the onscreen prompts and choose to reboot at the end of
    installation.

That’s it.  Hope this helps.  Feel free to leave comments and advice yourself, and we will answer you promptly if you need technical assistance.

If you need any type of Technical Support on any other operating systems or hardware, please visit our main Tech Support website at http://www.techsuperforce.com.





New Technical Support Website is LIVE

17 08 2012

There’s a new site online creating a buzz. A new kind of geek is looking out for the technically disabled and the services are monstrous! Where else can you get affordable technical support, fix your home or business network issues, and maintain your website with graphic design and website creation?

Techsuperforce.com, that’s where!

With an independent graphic and web design firm backing them up with over 15 years of experience, this organization does it all!

Live local and remote support, email inquiries, and phone support. It’s like having your own personal IT guy, or girl, of that suits you better.

Check out http://www.techsuperforce.com.