CAT5 Wiring Technique for Ethernet Cable

26 08 2012

Tech Superforce

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Connectors and Information

The cable exists in both stranded and solid conductor forms. The stranded form is more flexible and withstands more bending without breaking and is suited for reliable connections with insulation piercing connectors, but makes unreliable connections in insulation-displacement connectors. The solid form is less expensive and makes reliable connections into insulation displacement connectors, but makes unreliable connections in insulation piercing connectors. Taking these things into account, building wiring (for example, the wiring inside the wall that connects a wall socket to a central patch panel) is solid core, while patch cables (for example, the movable cable that plugs into the wall socket on one end and a computer on the other) are stranded. Outer insulation is typically PVC or LSOH.

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STANDARD SEQUENCE

White Orange, Orange, White Green, Blue, White Blue, Green, White Brown, Brown.  This is Standard 568B Cat5 wiring.

CHARACTERISTICS of Category 5 Wire
Bending radius
Most Cat 5 cables can be bent at a radius approximately 4 times the diameter of the cable.

Maximum Cable Segment Length
According to the ANSI/TIA/EIA standard for category 5e cable, (TIA/EIA 568-5-A[5]) the maximum length for a cable segment is 100 meters (328 feet). If longer runs are required, the use of active hardware such as a repeater, or a switch, is necessary.[6] [7] The specifications for 10baseT networking specify a 100 metre length between active devices. This allows for 90 metres of fixed cabling, two connectors and two patch leads of 5 metres, one at each end. In practice longer lengths are possible. (See Ethernet over twisted pair which states that 150 m is often considered to be the maximum working length.) Experiments show that a full 305 metre drum of cable is well above the practical limit, but that reliable transmission with 200 m is often possible.

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Malicious Viruses and What To Do If Your System Becomes Infected

26 08 2012

Malicious code (sometimes called malware) is a type of software designed to take over or  damage a computer, without the user’s knowledge or approval. Malware includes:

  • Viruses that attach to legitimate files and spread when the files are opened.
  • Worms that infect systems and spread automatically through the network.
  • Trojan horse programs that appear to be useful programs but which perform secret or  malicious acts.
  • Spyware that tracks your computer or browser activity.
  • Adware that displays pop-up advertisements based on your browser activity.
  • Spam that is unwanted, unsolicited e-mail, often carrying viruses or advertisements for    questionable or illegal products.

You should protect all systems with malware protection software to help prevent and control   malware on your system.

Here are two of my favorite programs to use, Malwarebytes and Avast.  Malwarebytes is reactive program that you install in a non-infected system and run and update to keep your computer safe.  You can also use it in a ‘cocktail’ of programs to run in Safe Mode if you ever have to clean up your system from infections.

Avast is a free anti-virus that has worked pretty good to keep our systems protected.  It is simple, very stealth, and low resource-consuming on any operatating systems we have tested it on.  It has picked up many viruses and removed them from infected systems.

  • Common symptoms of malware on your system include:

    • The browser home page or default search page has changed.
    • Excessive pop-ups or strange messages being displayed.
    • Firewall alerts about programs trying to access the Internet.
    • System errors about corrupt or missing files.
    • File extension associations have changed to open files with a different program.
    • Files that disappear, are renamed, or are corrupt.
    • New icons appear on the desktop or taskbar, or new toolbars show in the browser.
    • The firewall or antivirus software is turned off, or you can’t run antivirus scans.
    • The system won’t boot.
  • Some malicious software can hide itself such that there might not be any obvious signs of its presence. Other symptoms of an infection include:
    • Slow Internet access.
    • Excessive network traffic, or traffic during times when no activity should be occurring.
    • Excessive CPU or disk activity.
    • Low system memory.
    • An unusually high volume of outgoing e-mail, or e-mail sent during off hours.
  • Conducting regular system scans can detect and fix many problems.
    • Most software lets you schedule complete system scans, such as daily or weekly.
    • If you suspect a problem, initiate a full system scan immediately.
  • Remediation is the process of correcting any problems that are found. Most antivirus software remediates problems automatically or semi-automatically (i.e. you are prompted to identify the action to take). Possible actions in response to problems are:
    • Repair the infection. Repair is possible for true viruses that have attached themselves to valid files. During the repair, the virus is removed and the file is placed back in its original state (if possible).
    • Quarantine the file. Quarantine moves the infected file to a secure folder where it cannot be opened or run normally. You might quarantine an infected file that cannot be repaired to see if another tool or utility might be able to recover the file at another time.
    • Delete the file. You should delete files that are malicious files such as worms, Trojan horse programs, or spyware or adware programs. In addition, you should periodically review the quarantine folder and delete any files you do not want to recover.
  • If a scan reports a serious problem, disconnect your computer from the network. This prevents your computer from infecting other computers until the problem is corrected.
  • Some malicious software warnings, such as those seen in pop-ups or received through e-mail, are hoax viruses. A hoax virus instructs you to take an action to protect your system, when in fact that action will cause harm. Two common hoaxes are:
    • Instructing you to delete a file that is reported as a virus. The file is actually an important system file that will lead to instability or the inability to boot your computer.
    • Instructing you to download and run a program to see if your system is compromised or to add protection to your system. The file you download is the malicious software.

    Before taking any actions based on notices or e-mails, search the Internet for a list of virus hoaxes and compare your notice to know hoaxes.

Recovery from malware could include the following actions:

  • If scans detect malware, then repair, quarantine, or delete the malicious software.
  • Some malware cannot be removed because it is running.
    • If possible, stop the program from running, then try to remove it.
    • If you are unable to stop the malware, try booting into Safe Mode, then run the scanning software to locate and remove the malware.
  • If malware has caused damage to the system, it may be permanent and could require that you reinstall applications, features, restore files from a backup, or even restore the entire operating system from scratch.
  • If malware has damaged or corrupted system files, you might be able to repair the infected files using Sfc.exe.
    • Before running Sfc, be sure to remove the program that caused the damage (or it might re-introduce the problem after the fix).
    • You might need to boot into the Recovery Console to check system file integrity and repair any problems found.
  • Some malware can corrupt the boot block on the hard disk preventing the system from starting. To repair the problem, try using the Recovery Console in Windows XP, or perform an automatic repair in Windows Vista/7. Use fixmbr or fixboot in the Recovery Console to try to repair the damage.
  • If the organization uses imaging solutions, you can quickly reimage a machine if it is infected with malware. Reimaging or installing from scratch is often faster and more effective than malware removal and cleanup.

To conclude, the best thing to do in case the virus is not removed is to boot up in Safe Mode (restart the computer and right when it turns on press F8 until you are prompted to start in Safe Mode).  Then run your virus removal utilities.  If you will need the Internet, boot in Safe Mode with Networking (this mean you can connect online with minimal resources loaded).

Sometimes virus removal can be like peeling an onion- you remove one and it reveals another one that was not detected before.  IF this happens a lot, then as you go removing the viruses, some parts of your operating system can become corrupt, like system files and applications .  In this case, and in the case of rootkits, sometimes it’s just best to salvage whatever information you can and then re-install the operating system.

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